This report provided cost estimates to deploy several types of ITS in Florida. Florida-specific ITS costs data applicable to the U.S. DOT ITS Deployment Analysis System (IDAS) were identified.
IDAS is a software tool used by transportation planners to assist in the configuration of ITS deployments and predict the relative benefits and costs of ITS investments. Default values for typical configurations are based on national data.
In this study, researchers substituted IDAS default values with Florida-specific ITS unit costs data to tailor cost estimates to local deployments. The cost data input into the model were derived from Florida DOT (FDOT) Districts, State representatives, and previous research:
- The Interstate 75 (I-75) Corridor Implementation Plan
- The Broward County/Palm Beach County APTS Program Master Plan
- The FDOT District 3 ITS Study
- The Florida CVISN Business Plan
The data below were drawn from the unit cost analysis and summary information provided in Chapter 6 of the report.
Based on information collected from FDOT District 6, Broward County, Lee County, and other sources, cost estimates for loop detectors ranged from $7,000 to $12,000 per intersection on arterials, and $13,000 to 15,000 per site on freeways (assuming eight-lane detection). The cost of video image detection systems ranged from 34,000 to $38,000 per direction on freeways (with camera pole included) and $16,000 to $20,000 per intersection on arterials. The cost of a remote traffic microwave sensor system ranged from a high of $11,500 per site to a low of $5,000 per site depending on the need to install new poles, or use existing poles, respectively.
Based on data collected from FDOT Districts 6 and 7, Orlando-Orange County Expressway Authority and others, the cost to furnish and install a CCTV camera ranged from $16,000 to $18,000 on freeways (camera pole not included). Deployment costs were less for applications on arterial surface streets where cabling costs were lower. In these areas, a camera could be furnished and installed for approximately $14,000.
The operations and maintenance (O&M) costs for cameras ranged from $1,200 to $4,000 per year. Most agencies reported O&M costs closer to $4,000 per year. Estimates of camera lifetimes ranged from five to eight years.
Equipment Poles (CCTV)
The report indicated that pole costs could range from $5,000 for a 55-foot concrete strain pole to $32,500 for a 90-foot steel Abacus pole (special application). Overall, the authors indicated that the typical cost to furnish and install a camera pole ranged from $5,000 to $12,000. Poles were assumed to have a 20 year lifetime.
License plate readers cost about $30,000 per direction. Electronic toll readers cost about $32,000 per direction. O&M costs range form $800 to $1000 per year and roadside readers can have seven-year life cycle.
In Lee County, the cost of activated, hardwired, traffic signal preemption can be deployed for $8,000 per intersection, including $240 in annual maintenance costs and excluding controller upgrade costs.
In Broward County, a GPS-based preemption system was implemented for approximately $5,700 per intersection. Additional costs included $3,600 for Type 2070 controller upgrades, $2,200 for in-vehicle fire truck equipment, and $2,500 for fire station equipment.
Overall, researchers estimated that signal preemption devices cost $4,000 to $8,000 per intersection and have a seven year life cycle. O&M costs range from $150 to $300 per year.
Cost data collected from FDOT District 6 indicated that a ramp meter system costs $18,000 per site (not including the cost of detection devices). The cost estimate assumed $12,700 for the ramp meter assembly, signal displays, a Type 170 controller and cabinet, and $5000 for optimization costs. Annual O&M was estimated at $2,000. System life cycle was estimated at seven-years.
Deployment cost data were evaluated in the Arizona Ramp Metering Design Study (2002). Including the combined cost of a ramp and meter assembly, signal displays, controller, wiring, and the mobilization and maintenance of traffic during construction, a ramp meter system was estimated to cost between $54,000 and $64,000 per site. Detection components cost an additional $6,500.
Dynamic Message Signs (DMS)
In Florida, the data show that DMS units range in cost from 35,000 to $130,000 ($35,000 -- $55,000 for arterial highways, and $80,000 -- $130,000 for freeways). In addition, the overhead support structures range in cost from $25,000 to $250,000 ($25,000 -- $115,570 for arterials and highways, and $40,000 -- $250,000 for freeways and interstates). Maintenance of traffic (MOT) issues contributed to increased cost during construction, especially on freeways. Annual O&M for freeway DMS ranged from $5,000 (Districts 2 and 6 data) to $16,499 (Districts 4 and 7 data). Respondents projected a 10 year life cycle for DMS and a 20 year life cycle for support structures.
Highway Advisory Radios (HAR)
Cost data from the Florida's Turnpike Enterprise indicated that the capital cost of an HAR was about $46,000, with an annual O&M cost of about $2,500. The cost of a HAR sign with beacons was estimated at $15,500.
Data collected from the ITS Corridor Plan for I-75 assumed a capital cost of $42,000 per HAR. The HAR sign and beacons component was estimated at $9,000. The life cycle estimate was 10 years.
Broward County indicated that the cost to install fiber optic cable and conduit ranged from $80,000 to $105,000 per mile. In addition, fiber optic receivers/transceivers or edge switches would be required at a cost of approximately $3,000 to $4,000 per intersection. As an example, the report indicated that the cost to link fiber optic communications equipment at 20 intersections on a 3-mile corridor would cost approximately $300,000 to $465,000. The cost to upgrade and connect a network of local controllers to a TMC would be additional.
A controller upgrade for signal control can cost between $2,000 and $15,000. The lower-end of the cost range includes the installation of a new controller without replacing the cabinet, and the higher-end includes a full Type 2070 controller with cabinet.
The ITS Corridor Plan for I-75 indicated the combined cost of lane control software and a group controller would be approximately $300,000, with annual O&M of $15,000. The cost of an emergency gate system was estimated at $80,000 per location (assuming 10 gates per location and $8,000 per gate) with annual O&M at $4,000. The installation of DMS and CCTV camera systems at entry/exit locations would be additional.
Data obtained from Florida East Coast Railways indicated the combined cost of double-track rail crossing pedestrian warning signals, gates, controllers, and other communication devices ranged from $14,317 to $44,000. Cost data obtained from Lee County indicated that the cost of a rail-crossing controller was about $11,200, annual O&M costs were about $296, and the system had a seven-year life cycle.
Transportation Management Centers (TMC)
Based on costs data obtained from FDOT Districts 2, 4, 6, 7, and Broward County it was concluded that basic facility and communication costs range between $3.9 million and $8.0 million, and annual O&M costs range between $100,000 and $500,000. Regional Transportation Management Center labor costs range between $300,000 (District 2 data) and $1.2 million (District 4 data). Smaller signal control traffic operation centers were expected to have lower labor costs (e.g., $100,000 annual cost).
Central software and integration costs varied between $250,000 (District 4 COTS software costs data) and $2 million (based on District 6 data), with annual O&M costs that ranged between $50,000 and $100,000.
Central hardware costs could exceed $200,000 if regional communications and system integration were required. Annual O&M costs for central hardware ranged between $40,000 and $55,000. These costs, however, were expected to be much less for smaller centers not subject to large initial expenditures on computer systems and work stations.
The cost of videos walls and video monitors range between $100,000 and $345,000. Annual O&M costs ranged from $35,000 to $55,000.
The central software and hardware costs data proved by FDOT Districts supported basic functions (i.e., traffic surveillance, incident detection, incident response, and traffic information dissemination).
Costs for leased telephone lines with 56 Kilobytes per second transmission capabilities were estimated to be $2,000 per year (District 2 data). The low and high annual costs for T1 and T3 leased telephone lines were estimated to range from $5,600 to $10,000, and from $25,000 to $132,000, respectively.
The cost of fiber optic cable with junction boxes, splicing, termination, and new conduit was estimated to range from $79,000 to $105,600 per mile. Fiber optic cable in existing conduit was estimated to range from $17,000 to $25,000 per mile for the backbone, and $12,000 per mile for branches on the backbone.
Fiber optic receivers/transceivers or edge switches were estimated to range between $3,000 and $4,000 per location.
Wireless data receivers/transceivers were estimated to range between $3,000 and $4,000.
Commercial Vehicle Operations
According to the Florida CVISN Business Plan, the total cost of commercial vehicle administration software and integration for CVISN applications ranges from $1.8 million to $4.5 million
The cost to integrate the Florida Pre-Pass system with the National screening system was estimated at $50,000.
Electronic Toll Collection (ETC)
The Texas Turnpike Authority (TTA) Central Texas Turnpike Project (CTTP) Engineer’s report provided the following ETC capital cost estimates.
- Electronic toll readers: $11,200 per lane
- Average cost for a high speed camera that covers two lanes: $8,400
- Cost for classification and detection: $12,000
- ETC hardware: $45,000 to $138,000
- ETC commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software that includes local database software and management: $120,000
- ETC structures on mainline: $13,000 to $20,000
- Toll administration hardware including a two computer workstations, a printer and a modem: $130,000
- Toll administration COTS software including local database software and national database coordination; $590,000
- Toll transponders: $35
Advanced Public Transportation Systems
The Florida District 4 Advanced Public Transportation Plan provided the following estimates of capital costs.
- Interior fixed mount CCTV cameras at remote locations: $25,000
- Transit center software (COTS) and integration for vehicle tracking and scheduling, database and information storage, schedule adjustment software, real-time travel information software: $350,000
- Cell-based communication equipment including radio system and data transceiver capabilities: $3,800
- GPS/DGPS will automatic vehicle location: $15,000
- Automatic passenger counter (APC): $15,000
- On-board text messaging: $15,000
- Security Package including on-board CCTV surveillance cameras and hot buttons: $8,000
- The Florida Jacksonville Transit Authority APC case study provided the following estimates of capital costs.
- Automatic passenger counter: $10,500
The Florida Pinellas SunCoast Transit Authority (PSTA) EFP Systems Case Study provided the following estimates of capital costs.
- Electronic fare payment system: $11,400 to $13,200
Broward County, Florida, provided the following estimates of capital costs.
- On-board signal preemption processor for GPS-based system: $2,200
Intelligent Transportation System Deployment Analysis System Customization: Technical Memorandum No.4 - Florida-Specific Intelligent Transportation System Deployment Costs Version 2