The Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana metro area is home to 13 million people and has the second highest population density in the United States. The region has the most extensive freeway system in the United States, in addition to a comprehensive public transit system. The area is one of the most congested areas in the United States.
The Los Angeles (LA) Congestion Reduction Demonstration (CRD) projects included:
Tolling: Converting HOV lanes and restriping created dynamically-priced HOT lanes; the 11-mile ExpressLanes on I-110 opened on November 10, 2012 and the 14-mile ExpressLanes on I-10 opened on February 23, 2013. Tolls range from $0.25 to $1.40 per hour, depending on congestion, paid with an electronic FasTrak transponder.
Parking Management: LA Express Park is an integrated parking management system that relies on state-of-the-art parking sensors, parking meters, and parking guidance technologies, as well as advanced analytical capabilities.
Transit: Increased frequency of bus rapid transit (BRT), additional transit signal priority (TSP) deployment, and capital improvements.
Travel Demand Management: Formation of new vanpools.
Parking rate changes over the first year of the LA Express Park program decreased average parking rates at 59 percent of parking meters, increased rates at 29 percent of meters, and 12 percent of meters had rates unchanged. The average rate decreased by 11 percent overall.. The average hourly rate for parking meters in the LA Express Park deployment area was initially $1.95 but fell to $1.76 after deployment. While not a specific objective of the project, parking revenues increased by approximately 2.5 percent, excluding revenue from newly-implemented extended meter hours.
More spaces were occupied 70 to 90 percent of the time, fewer spaces were occupied over 90 percent of the time, and fewer spaces were occupied less than 70 percent of the time, reflecting the desired outcome of the project. A gradual increase in occupancy was noted beginning in January 2013, this change was attributed to an improving economy.