This study aims to identify the impact of bottom-up information provision regarding on-street parking places. Theoretically, if drivers have more information on the status of parking spaces, it would decrease the amount of cruising for parking.
Using an agent-based simulation, performance is compared between a bottom-up vehicle-to-vehicle communication strategy (V2V) and a strategy combining parking sensors and vehicle-to-vehicle communication (S2V). The scenarios are described as follows:
- V2V Scenario: Agents (V2V-equipped vehicles) in the network contribute to the network by gathering and distributing information to nearby agents. In the first strategy, V2V cars send and receive messages within a fixed transmission range of 200 meters. In the V2V strategy, messages are created and shared when a V2V car leaves a parking place or when a vehicle occupies an empty parking place. Spaces vacant at the beginning of the simulation and those occupied/departed by non-V2V vehicles have no available information.
- S2V Scenario: On-street parking places are equipped with sensors capable of sensing and communicating occupancy status to nearby vehicles. In these simulations, sensors at vacant spots broadcast messages to drivers at routine intervals until they are occupied. The communication is based on the infrastructure rather than the vehicle behavior.
Provision of information has a limited effect on search time. In this study, the reduction in time spent cruising or seeking a place to park in either the V2V or S2V scenario is 5% to 10%, at most. Under most occupancy and penetration scenarios, the results of the two scenarios were within plus or minus 3%.