This study evaluated four automated shuttle projects in the U.S., Germany and Estonia, using corresponding surveys to gain insight into three aspects of survey development: survey population, survey approach, and questionnaire design. All projects were conducted between 2018 to 2020, with surveys administered either during or after the related project. The surveys were evaluated on the previously mentioned aspects of survey development. The projects were as follows:
- The first project was a 90-day automated shuttle pilot at Joint Base Myer-Henderson Hall in Washington, D.C., led by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Research and Development Center. A total of 154 paper and online surveys were distributed to riders and non-riders with questions about perceived safety.
- The second project piloted a 5-month automated shuttle service in Schöneberg, Berlin at EUREF's Office Campus. Passengers were given surveys concerning demographics, shuttle and service characteristics (e.g., perceived safety and enjoyment), environmental attitudes, and acceptance.
- The third project involved a one-week demonstration of an automated shuttle on the campus of the University of South Florida. Paper surveys were distributed to passengers on-board; passengers were asked about their trip experience, level of trust and comfort, and how future service would impact travel choices.
- The fourth project was a four-month pilot of a circulator service at a public park in Tallinn, Estonia. Passengers were directed to an online survey while non-passengers were recruited via the Tallinn University of Technology. Survey questions asked about perceived safety and security, overall trip experience, and ability to use the service.
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