Crash and injury prevention estimates for intersection driver assistance systems in left turn across path/opposite direction crashes in the United States
The objective of this research study was to estimate the number of left turns across path/opposite direction (LTAP/OD) crashes and injuries that could be prevented in the United States if vehicles were equipped with an intersection advanced driver assistance system (I-ADAS).
This study reconstructed 501 vehicle-to-vehicle of LTAP/OD crashes in the United States that were investigated in the NHTSA National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). The performance of 30 different I-ADAS system variations was evaluated for each crash. These variations were the combinations of five time-to-collision (TTC) activation thresholds, three latency times, and two different response types (automated braking and driver warning). In addition, two sightline assumptions were modeled for each crash: One where the turning vehicle was visible long before the intersection and one where the turning vehicle was only visible within the intersection. For resimulated crashes that were not avoided by I-ADAS, a new crash delta-V was computed for each vehicle. The probability of Abbreviated Injury Scale 2 or higher injury in any body region (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale [MAIS] 2+F) to each front-row occupant was computed.
Depending on the system design, sightline assumption, intersection advanced driver assistance system (I-ADAS) variation, and fleet penetration, an I-ADAS system that automatically applies emergency braking could avoid 18 to 84 percent of all left turn across path/opposite direction (LTAP/OD) crashes. Only 0 to 32 percent of all LTAP/OD crashes could have been avoided using an I-ADAS system that only warns the driver. An I-ADAS system that applies emergency braking could prevent 47 to 93 percent of front-row occupants from receiving MAIS 2+F injuries. A system that warns the driver in LTAP/OD crashes was able to prevent 0 to 37 percent of front-row occupants from receiving MAIS 2+F injuries. The effectiveness of I-ADAS in reducing crashes and number of injured persons was higher when both vehicles were equipped with I-ADAS.