Since the introduction of publicly accessible direct current fast charging (DCFC) systems during the EV Project in 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy and others have conducted surveys on deployment and use of DCFC equipment. The EV project deployed over 100 DCFC that used the CHAdeMO charging standard, which was included on all participating Nissan Leaf vehicles, adopted by Japanese automakers. The EV project installed DCFC in eight states in both metropolitan areas and along transportation corridors in rural areas.
There are a number of considerations involved in the decision of DCFC systems.
- Permitting. Significant changes in a host facility's electrical and physical systems through addition of a DCFC will typically require a permit from local building authorities. Fees for permits have been reported to cost as much as $6,500 per site with associated engineering costs ranging from $1,500 to $3,000 per site.
- Loss of Space. When DCFC systems are installed in existing parking lots the adjacent parking spots are generally reserved only for DCFC charging. This reduces the availability of parking for vehicles not charging.
- Ground Surface Conditions. Underground utilities and aboveground features could interfere with installation of DCFCs.
- Electrical Service. Potential DCFC site hosts must determine if their site has sufficient available electrical capacity, noting that current DCFCs typically provide up to 50 kW of power when charging a vehicle.
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