Decina, Lawrence E. et al.
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A 2007 literature review by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) documented studies of speed camera and red light camera (RLC) programs worldwide. Red light cameras are set up to photograph vehicles entering intersections after signals have turned red. Detection of an offense is made by sensors buried in the pavement and tied to a timing system integrating the traffic signal and pole-mounted camera. Photographs of a vehicle entering an intersection illegally and the license plate number are taken and then reviewed by the jurisdiction. The owner of the vehicle then may receive a citation. RLCs are used worldwide, most heavily in Australia, Canada, Europe, Singapore, and the United States.

Automated speed enforcement cameras take single spot or average vehicle speeds over several measurements. Most speed cameras use a low-powered Doppler radar speed sensor that triggers the camera to photograph vehicles traveling above a preset speed as they pass a specified point. The camera records the date, time, and vehicle speed, and usually is set to activate only when a vehicle is traveling significantly faster than the posted limit. Photo radar often is accompanied by a visible law enforcement presence to maximize the deterrence effect, but cameras can also be deployed unattended. Photographic evidence is reviewed and a citation is issued to the owner of the vehicle.

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U.S. DOT National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
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Automated Enforcement: A Compendium of Worldwide Evaluations of Results
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