Researchers Collected Data from 46 Drayage Trucks to Model the Pollution Reduction from Fully Switching to Battery-Electric Trucks.
In the transportation sector, heavy-duty trucks are the second largest energy consumers and emit significant greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Full adoption of Battery Electric Trucks (BET) involves operational enhancements, charging infrastructure, and technological advancements, aiming to reduce emissions both at production and tailpipe levels. To estimate these reductions, researchers gathered five months of truck operation data in 2021 from three fleets around the Port of New York and New Jersey (PoNYNJ). This data, when integrated into a powertrain model with an electrification assumption, helped compare potential emission savings against the present situation operating within the context of PoNYNJ drayage operations.
Between March and July 2021, detailed performance data, including engine CAN and GPS position information, from 46 drayage trucks from three port operators was gathered at 1-Hz intervals, with each fleet displaying unique features like average speed and dwell time. This data validated an electric truck powertrain simulation, which was used to assess electrification impacts on operations. When simulating a fully electrified fleet, the real-world data was compared with model outcomes to measure emission reductions. This assessment combined methodologies from Argonne National Lab (for production emissions) and the U.S. Energy Information Administration (for tailpipe emissions) to ensure a comprehensive analysis.
- Averaging across the three fleets and considering both production and tailpipe emissions, a full shift to electrification would result in a reduction of 76 metric tons of CO2 (MTCO2) per truck annually (about 75 percent reduction) using the current energy production mix, which equates to 24,100 MTCO2 per year for all three operators (with 314 trucks). Further reductions may be achieved if the electric grid switches to renewable energy.
- The study examined other pollutant reductions as well and broke out their improvements by each fleet. Table 1 below shows the percent reduction of each pollutant when compared to current tailpipe emissions for each fleet.
Table 1. Percent reduction of pollutant emissions for each fleet
|Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
|Nitrogen Oxide (NOX)
|Sulfur Oxide (SOX)