- Employ a VN-DGNSS approach instead of an SPP approach for lane matching CAV applications. A VN-DGNSS approach achieved an accuracy of 99.2 percent when compared to the SAE standard of 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) from the center of the lane. When assessed for meter-level accuracy, this approach achieved an accuracy of 86.1 percent. The SPP approach instead achieved an accuracy of 88.6 percent (SAE standard) and 18.0 percent (meter-level standard).
- Employ a VN-DGNSS approach to accurately calculate the vertical position of a moving vehicle. Although both the N-DGNSS and SPP approaches surpassed the SAE specifications in horizontal positioning accuracy, the SPP approach did not achieve the SAE 3-meter vertical accuracy specification while the VN-DGNSS achieved a significantly higher accuracy than the SPP approach. The calculated error was expected to be within 3.0 meters (9.8 feet) of the vehicle’s actual position. VN-DGNSS achieved an accuracy of 99 .7 percent while SPP approach achieved an accuracy of 0 percent.
- Predict vehicle trajectories using a VN-DGNSS to accurately calculate RTK solutions. This approach achieved 90 percent accuracy when calculating solutions when the vehicle is within the following range: 1.4 meters (4.6 feet) from the center of the lane to 0.4 meters (1.3 feet) from the edge of the lane. Utilizing SPP-oriented solutions caused the accuracy to drop below 90 percent once the vehicle was more than 0.7 meters (2.3 feet) from the lane center or 1.1 meters (3.6 feet) from its edge. Accuracy for both systems was high when vehicles were less than 0.6 meters (2.0 feet) from the lane center.