Maryland DOT Piloted Connected Vehicle Technologies Using Dual Mode Roadside Unit with DSRC and C-V2X for A Pedestrian Collision Warning System at One Intersection.
Infrastructure-to-Vehicle (I2V) systems are recognized for their ability to facilitate connected vehicle communications as part of the broader connected and automated vehicle ecosystem. The way I2V works is by exchanging information in real-time from infrastructure to the technology that is embedded inside a vehicle. Communication can take place either via (i) Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC), which is a radio wave that transmits data directly with a low latency from one point to another, or (ii) Cellular - Vehicle to Everything (C-V2X), which is similar to DSRC, but with most of the technology yet to be widely proven at scale. This study detailed the results from a project that was awarded to the Maryland DOT (MDOT) in 2019 and lasted until December 2021, focusing on testing the dual mode roadside unit (RSU) with DSRC and C-V2X capabilities at a single intersection along MD214 highway in Seat Pleasant, Maryland, for evaluating crosswalk safety. The project used cameras for detection and a private security company credentialing for message exchanges. For cybersecurity, the Security Credential Management System (SCMS) was utilized, which provided the mechanism for V2X devices to exchange information in a trustworthy and privacy protective manner using digital certificates.
- Anticipate potential additional deployment time required for registering on-board units (OBU) with the SCMS for cybersecurity. While the SCMS offers a secure and privacy-preserving method for V2X devices to share information via digital certificates, in this project, mandating the registration of all OBUs through the Maryland SCMS limited the pace of deployment.
- Expect delays stemming from equipment manufacturers’ unit scaling efforts. It was observed that the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) were unable to mass scale in-vehicle units, nor register them in SCMS, meaning it was unlikely they would be providing in-vehicle notifications in a timely manner. Such delays could hamper an Infrastructure Owner-Operator’s (IOO) ability to improve safety through CV technologies.
- Be prepared for any unforeseen expenditures during deployment. In this project, the cost of the vendor to provide the RSU and installation staff time was higher than expected, and along with some additional miscellaneous costs, it drove up the total deployment cost.
- Ensure a contingency plan is in place for staff training, particularly when introducing new technology for the first time. In this project, MDOT State Highway Administration (SHA) staff had to upskill; however, it was anticipated that future deployment costs would be lower.
- Get the message out about prior experience with the technology to attract bids from potential vendors. The invitation for bid was successful in attracting companies in this project as vendors noticed that Maryland was actively “engaged” in the Connected Vehicles (CV) field.