Thaller, A.; A. Posch, A. Dugan; and K. Steininger
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Passenger transport has been identified as a major contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In addition, the sector has experienced a significant growth rate in the last several decades, meaning that interventions to curb emissions are vital to ensure sustainability. In particular, focus has been placed on a demand-side approach to allow for change to be made in the absence of technological transformations. By shifting utilization of the existing services, it is possible to reduce overall GHG emissions and to in turn reduce the environmental impact of transportation systems.

A study by a team of Austrian researchers performed a literature review and conducted expert interviews with 17 transportation officials and sustainability advocates, as well as a series of focus groups with transportation experts, to learn more about how policy packages may best balance disruption and policy effectiveness to provoke significant, sustained shifts in transportation usage. This research was used to create a series of recommendations and best practices for policymakers.

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Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment
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How to design policy packages for sustainable transport: Balancing disruptiveness and implementability
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