Aided by the growth of smartphones and high-speed data access, Transportation Network Companies (TNCs), which allow users to book and pay for livery services from their smartphone, have become a ubiquitous facet of urban life.
However, TNCs have been controversial since their inception. Proponents of the services argue that they decrease urban congestion because they can encourage shared rides and decrease private automobile use. However, opponents argue that these services increase urban congestion by putting more cars on the road and encouraging vehicle use in heavily congested urban areas.
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