This paper uses a nationwide survey of interurban toll road users in Spain to develop a multilevel logit framework to explore users' adoption and position toward the use of ETC.
A survey of drivers revealed several lessons learned about the adoption of electronic toll transponders or tags:
- Tag ownership is primarily related to trip-related attributes
- Socioeconomic characteristics have a very minor role in determining ownership of toll tags
- It is not possible to establish specific socioeconomic market segments to direct policy to increase penetration of electronic toll collection
The most effective way to encourage individuals to adopt electronic toll collection and increase use of toll roads is free distribution of tags/electronic tolling devices.