This research evaluated the potential safety benefits of implementing connected vehicle technologies, specifically V2V communications, work zone hazard warnings, and dynamic route guidance in a traffic network having active work zones. A micro-simulation model (Paramics) was used to model a traffic network and simulate connected vehicle applications in a section of Toronto, Canada. The model included an additional application programming interface (API) to assess time to collision (TTC) data as a surrogate safety measure.
The analysis compared safety "with" and "without" connected vehicle applications for a variety of market penetration rates ranging from 20 to 100 percent. In each of the scenarios modeled, connected vehicles became aware of work zone conditions when they were within 1,000 meters of a work zone, and then stored and shared this information with other connected vehicles for dynamic route guidance. Non-connected vehicles were unable to exchange information and always selected the shortest path (distance) to their destination as determined from the start.
Authors discussed assumptions related to system performance and compliance, and incorporated three different models to emulate driver behavior and its influence on vehicle headways and gap acceptance after drivers receive information on work zone congestion and make rerouting decisions.
Connected vehicle applications can reroute drivers around work zones but at the expense of longer average trip distances which can decrease safety.
- Combining the most conservative driver behavior model (non-aggressive) with connected vehicle market penetration rates ranging from 20 to 40 percent resulted in the best solution for improved network safety.
- Market penetration rates above 40 percent resulted in decreased network safety.
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