Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services require a bi-directional interface between the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and the power grid, and take advantage of the fact that vehicles are idle approximately 90 percent of the time. A significant literature has developed over the past decade on the value that plug-in-vehicles (PEVs) can provide serving as distributed energy storage devices. While the penetration of PEVs is still low relative to conventional vehicles, experience on PEV usage and charging behaviors is being gained from the several thousand PEVs that have already been sold.
The EV Project is an initiative funded by the U.S. Department of Energy with several private sector partners that involves studying 6,000 PEVs in several regions across the country with qualifying and associated EVSE infrastructure. The project collected data on vehicle charging and infrastructure use to investigate the current and future grid impacts and lost economic benefits associated with not having in place an IVCI. This analysis serves to highlight the importance of moving more quickly to develop interoperability standards between EV, EVSE, and the emerging smart grid infrastructure.
An IVCI can be deployed to manage the timing of PEV charging, which provides economic value to ratepayers by minimizing infrastructure investments and to PEV owners through lowcost charging strategies. Shifting charging to off-peak periods either indirectly through time-of-use (TOU) rates or directly through utility control can defer investments in generation, transmission and distribution infrastructure. Furthermore, this allows greater utilization of the existing grid infrastructure (e.g., amortizing existing investments over a larger number of MWh delivered).
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