Development and Evaluation of Speed Harmonization using Optimal Control Theory: A Simulation-Based Case Study at a Speed Reduction Zone
Intersections, merging roadways, speed reduction zones, and driver response to various disturbances are the primary sources of bottlenecks that contribute to traffic congestion. Speed harmonization strategies reduce driver speeds as they approach congestion, slowing the build-up of congestion and enabling quicker dissipation. The objective of this project is to determine the optimal acceleration or deceleration of each vehicle in a way that harmonizes the speed of an increasing number of vehicles at a speed reduction zone on a highway while minimizing rear-end crashes.
Multiple parameter conditions complying with the proposed optimal control algorithm are compared in the VISSIM simulation environment. The optimal control algorithm was found to have a minimum speed of 10 m/s (meters/second), 35 m/s, maximum acceleration 4.5 m/s2, maximum deceleration of -4.5 m/s2, and a minimum gap distance of 20 ft.
The suggested approach was found to reduce per-vehicle fuel consumption by 12 to 17 percent over the base case scenario and 2 to 12 percent over the state-of-the-art variable speed limit algorithm.