Rodier, Caroline
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This study developed a framework to identify the range of possible travel effects, both positive and negative, of users of ride-hailing on greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and vehicle miles traveled (VMT). This included the effects of ride-hailing on auto ownership, trip generation, destination choice, mode choice, network vehicle travel, and land use.

The study synthesized available literature as of Fall 2017 using this framework. The literature review focused on a small body of research, mostly conducted in 2016 and 2017, that provided some initial evidence on the impacts of these services. The research included population representative survey data, targeted ride-hailing user survey data, modeling studies and measured ride-hailing driver and passenger activity data.

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National Center for Sustainable Transportation
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The Effects of Ride Hailing Services on Travel and Associated Greenhouse Gas Emissions
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