A connected vehicle (CV) environment enables wireless communications among vehicles (vehicle-to-vehicle, or V2V), infrastructure (vehicle-to-infrastructure, or V2I), and mobile devices (sometimes called nomadic devices). Vehicles include light vehicles, trucks, motorcycles, and transit vehicles. Pedestrians or bicyclists can carry mobile (nomadic) devices, allowing vehicles and infrastructure to communicate with other CV participants and vice versa (vehicle-to-anything, or V2X).
To provide context to the expanding scope and relevance of connected and automated vehicle technology the authors referenced the results of a Delphi survey of transportation professionals which projected that on average, automated vehicle technology will be available in the United States by 2021 (with a two-year standard deviation), and that there will be a 20 percent penetration rate in the United States market by 2033 (with a six-year standard deviation).
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