The Initial Projected Annualized Costs To Implement and Operate Shared Fully Automated Mobility Services Ranged From $125,000 to $1,934,000 per Census Block Group (CBG) in Four Large U.S. Cities.

University Researchers Evaluated Automated Vehicle Technology and Transit Coverage in New York City, Chicago, Minneapolis, and Pittsburgh.

Made Public Date

This study evaluated transit systems in various cities to identify opportunities for equitable improvement through shared automated mobility. For this purpose, locations of unmet transit demand among the transit-dependent population were identified and prioritized for future service via Shared fully Automated Vehicles (SAVs) or shared fully automated electric shuttles. Based on current transit and technology costs, this study estimated levelized operating costs for first- and last-mile service in transit systems in four US cities: New York City, Chicago, Pittsburgh, and Minneapolis-St. Paul. Analysis was performed at Census Block Group (CBG) level for each city, with 205 CBGs prioritized for new transit service in New York City, 118 for Chicago, five for Pittsburg, and eight for Minneapolis- St. Paul. Data used in this study were from different sources ranging from 2014-2017.

The total cost for transit mode SAV and fully automated electric shuttles considered operator wages, fringe benefits, insurance, maintenance cost, acquisition (capital) costs, annualized acquisition cost, and annualized cost of wireless electric chargers based on cost values from various literature. Annualized costs were calculated using a six percent discount rate based on the state of Pennsylvania Department of Transportation bond rate, and an estimated ten years of use based on the average ten years of use for transit vehicles.

Table 1. Summary data for comparative analysis.


New York City


Minneapolis- St. Paul


Transit Dependent Population





Electric fully automated shuttles










System Cost

See summary