In Stockholm the permanent charging program (Cordon Charging) produced improvements in the environment by reducing carbon dioxide by 10 to 14 percent, NOX by 7 percent, and particulates by 9 percent.
Research on acceptability is especially detailed in these international locations and provides valuable lessons for U.S. cities interested in pursuing such policies. The report concludes with overall findings and lessons related to travel, costs and revenues, equity and economic impacts, environmental impacts; and public acceptance. These projects have demonstrated that pricing can be an affective means of managing demand and generating revenues and can be politically and publicly acceptable.
Findings from Stockholm
In Stockholm, the central city area of approximately 20 square miles (including about 10 square miles of the river and sparsely developed land) was designated as the priced zone. It covers the central city and constitutes but a small part of the urbanized county area. The population of the city area is 756,000 out of the total county population of 1.8 million. The three elements of the program are Charging Cordon, expanded Transit Routes, and new Park-and-Ride Lots. Charging is based on a fixed rate by time of day.
A full-scale six-month trial was in affect from January through July of 2006 and a detailed evaluation was carried out. The stated goals were to reduce congestion and enhance public transportation to increase accessibility, and improve the environment. The project goal was to reduce traffic by 10 to 15 percent. The pricing scheme was then reintroduced permanently in August 2007.
The following environmental impacts were documented. Observed reductions in the inner city included:
- 10-14 percent in Carbon Dioxide (2-3 percent in the County),
- 7 percent in NOX
- 9 percent in particulates.
- Emissions declined near population centers.
- There was no measurable change in noise impacts.
Author: Kiran Bhatt, Thomas Higgins
Published By: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration
Source Date: August 2008URL: http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop08047/index.htm
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